What is Ethics? - a fresh, new approach

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What is Ethics? - a fresh, new approach

Postby thinkdr » Sat Mar 16, 2019 6:29 am

In the new paradigm offered by Dr. M. C. Katz, based on the prior work by Dr. R. S. Hartman, the term 'Ethics' is given a novel meaning, though fortuitously, it may turn out to resemble in the end much of what others mean by the word. Here is an exposition of the new paradigm for the theory of ethics. What follows is based upon the assumption that the reader has read and studied the posts by prof in the earlier threads about the HOV (the logical, existential Hierarchy of Value) and that s/he is acquainted with the formula I > E > S.

WHAT IS ETHICS?

To be ethical is to Intrinsically- value (to I-value) oneself and others. How can we tell when someone is I-valuing something? They focus; give it some of their attention, and come to identify with it. If they I-value a person they get involved with that person. They see qualities in the person that others, who aren't so close, don't see. To illustrate, it is the way many of us felt about our mother when we small children. That is an example of Intrinsic valuation.

Another example may be how a czarina, a Russian princess or queen, felt about her jewelry. Or how we relate to the Mona Lisa or to an original Van Gogh today. Whatever we regard as very special, as a priceless treasure, whatever we value as life itself (unless we are depressed and suicidal) is an application of I-value.

When people identify and bond with the following they become Intrinsic values: Liberty, Freedom, Integrity, Beauty, Truth, Goodness, Authenticity, Creativity, and so forth. Those are often I-valued. When someone Intrinsically values something they see, they may call it "a beauty" or speak of it as "beautiful." When a person I-values a sound, he or she will call it "music."
When I-valuing a person one may speak of that person as "a friend", or as "a partner" or perhaps as "beloved", or one may fall back on poetry, or pet names, or some private, intimate expression that only the two of them understand. Other concepts, which when identified with become I-value applications, are Love, Community, Spirituality, Veracity, Reality, Sharing, Happiness, Ecstasy, Joy, Intuition and Insight.

ARE THERE ETHICAL FALLACIES?

We previously explained that Ethics arises when we I-value persons. This is true by definition. False logic results in a fallacy. Faulty thinking in the field of ethics will be known as ethical fallacy. Now that Ethics has been defined, I shall present two Ethical Fallacies, expressed by Dr. William Kelleher, an ethicist and a political scientist, in the following quote. They are The Instrumental Fallacy and the Ideological Fallacy.

The Instrumental Fallacy
To use a person solely as a means to achieve some end entails a negative regard for that person. Using reduces a person to the value of a thing, an instrument. No matter how highly prized, a thing is always potential trash. Every new car will some day be junk. But a person, so long as he or she is a self-conscious, thinking, feeling human being ought never be regarded as useless trash." The formula depicting this situation is E > I, obviously a fallacy, since science has established that I > E.



When persons are I-valued they are receiving positive regard, and Ethics - by definition - tells us that individuals always deserve to be viewed in this light; it tells us that all persons always deserve positive regard. "The Ideological Fallacy: This is the false assumption that ideas are more important than persons are.

This is the way Dr. Kelleher explains it.

Whenever the idea of "gender," or of "race," or "rank" - all intellectual constructs, or conceptions - which have no actual physical existence - are used to separate members of the human community, and to enable some to claim superiority over others, this is a violation of Ethics. Why? Because it indicates a failure to I-value persons. To hold any of those "isms": racism, sexism, or rankism, is to commit The Ideological Fallacy. In symbols this situation is S > I, again, a fallacy.

In contrast, Dr. Kelleher has proposed two value axioms. The first is Instrumental Enhancement. What does this mean?

Instrumental Enhancement

"Providing a service to people that helps to improve the quality of their lives" would be an Instrumental Enhancement. He offers several examples: Public education when it values a student as a unique, intelligent, creative person with potential for growth and development; Sending someone who needs it - a person who has been convicted of a crime, or a drug addict -- into rehab is another example of Instrumental Enhancement; Medical treatment, including surgery, is meant to enhance the quality of life and provide a benefit. The second value axiom applied to Ethics is what we shall designate as:

Ideological Enhancement

This is an idea that tends to encourage giving positive regard to people. The idea of Human Rights - such as the right to an opportunity to earn a living; or the right to be free from the fear of detention just for expressing political views - the human rights concept is an Ideological Enhancement.

Comments? Questions?
:idea: For further reading and insight into the topics of Ethics check out these links, and thereby add to your reading enjoyment

THE STRUCTURE OF ETHICS
[NEW] :!:
http://www.myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/TH ... ETHICS.pdf


THE BREAKTHROUGH - We Can Get Along After All (2018) http://myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/BREAKT ... %20all.pdf

LIVING WELL: how ethics helps us flourish
http://www.myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/LI ... ourish.pdf


[b]BASIC ETHICS: a systematic approach
(2014) [size=85]http://tinyurl.com/mfcgzfz


ETHICAL ADVENTURES http://wadeharvey.myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/ETHICAL%20ADVENTURES.pdf

When you Google this selection you may wish tostart with page 20 to skip the technicalities. Marvin C. Katz - ETHICS: A College Course http://wadeharvey.myqol.com/wadeharvey/Ethics_A_College_Course.pdf
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Re: What is Ethics? - a fresh, new approach

Postby thinkdr » Sat Mar 16, 2019 6:44 am

Those who take the time to study and learn from the first selection listed below, THE STRUCTURE OF ETHICS, will as a bonus gain a capacity to discern right choices from wrong choices.

I mention this because some people think that that's all there is to ethics. I disagree; I hold that Ethics, a useful body of knowledge, is so much more. After you read that essay, tell me what you think. Did you learn something about this field? What is your review of the effort?
:idea: For further reading and insight into the topics of Ethics check out these links, and thereby add to your reading enjoyment

THE STRUCTURE OF ETHICS
[NEW] :!:
http://www.myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/TH ... ETHICS.pdf


THE BREAKTHROUGH - We Can Get Along After All (2018) http://myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/BREAKT ... %20all.pdf

LIVING WELL: how ethics helps us flourish
http://www.myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/LI ... ourish.pdf


[b]BASIC ETHICS: a systematic approach
(2014) [size=85]http://tinyurl.com/mfcgzfz


ETHICAL ADVENTURES http://wadeharvey.myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/ETHICAL%20ADVENTURES.pdf

When you Google this selection you may wish tostart with page 20 to skip the technicalities. Marvin C. Katz - ETHICS: A College Course http://wadeharvey.myqol.com/wadeharvey/Ethics_A_College_Course.pdf
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Re: What is Ethics? - a fresh, new approach

Postby promethean75 » Sat Mar 16, 2019 4:29 pm

What is your review of the effort?


the buck stops here, partner. *chews toothpick while closely watching thinkdr's pistol hand*

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-cognitivism
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Re: What is Ethics? - a fresh, new approach

Postby thinkdr » Sun Mar 17, 2019 7:52 am

Greetings, promethean75

Wiki tells us that "A noncognitivist denies the cognitivist claim that "moral judgments are capable of being objectively true, because they describe some feature of the world."

I side with the cognitivists it seems. For, as you noted when you read THE STRUCTURE booklet, I hold that the facts of Ethics are objectively true. And I justify that position there by giving good reasons to back it up.

Are you a noncognitivist? If so, can you give sound reasons to lend credence as to why that is true?


When I write that you are ethical if you are kind, considerate, responsible, truthful, accountable, authentic, and sincere - I am making a claim that describes an aspect of the world. I am saying that people use words that way. They call such an individual with those traits "ethical." What would you call such a person?

Maybe while watching my pistol - or my hand - you would benefit by studying this book on Moral Philosophy - not a self-help book, altho the title makes it sound like one - will help develop the capacity of discernment enabling one to be able to classify choices as "right" or as "wrong" morally speaking:

http://www.myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/HO ... SFULLY.pdf

Also, click on the first link below to learn of the STRICTURE of this new paradigm being offered for consideration as a "fresh new theory of ethics."

Comments? Questions? Improvements?
:idea: For further reading and insight into the topics of Ethics check out these links, and thereby add to your reading enjoyment

THE STRUCTURE OF ETHICS
[NEW] :!:
http://www.myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/TH ... ETHICS.pdf


THE BREAKTHROUGH - We Can Get Along After All (2018) http://myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/BREAKT ... %20all.pdf

LIVING WELL: how ethics helps us flourish
http://www.myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/LI ... ourish.pdf


[b]BASIC ETHICS: a systematic approach
(2014) [size=85]http://tinyurl.com/mfcgzfz


ETHICAL ADVENTURES http://wadeharvey.myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/ETHICAL%20ADVENTURES.pdf

When you Google this selection you may wish tostart with page 20 to skip the technicalities. Marvin C. Katz - ETHICS: A College Course http://wadeharvey.myqol.com/wadeharvey/Ethics_A_College_Course.pdf
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Re: What is Ethics? - a fresh, new approach

Postby promethean75 » Sun Mar 17, 2019 5:49 pm

Are you a noncognitivist? If so, can you give sound reasons to lend credence as to why that is true?


sure, you could call me an amateur noncognitivist, i guess. but i couldn't give you any reasons that aren't already stated in the article, accessible to anyone. as far as i know (and i've looked around quite a bit), noncognitivism and its branches - e.g., emotivism and quasi-realism - are as far as ethical theory can go.

one would think this is very dangerous to morality, but in fact it's quite innocuous. people don't behave in correspondence to some abstract entities out in the world called 'right' and 'wrong', in the first place (although they think they do). so, it's no loss to explain, as noncognitivism does, that there are no such entities. what guides people's behavior is a hedonistic calculus. people are natural consequentialists who want to avoid pain and displeasure and attain gratification and satisfaction. but none of this is done 'out of principle', for such things are just abstractions and have no real substance. man is really just a simplistic pavlonian dog that learns how to behave, and what 'principles' to attribute to such behavior - these things be culturally relative - through operant conditioning.

this history of the philosophy of ethics and morality had been an attempt of vanity to over-complicate this matter as a result of the embarrassment man has felt at the knowledge of his mechanistic simplicity. he doesn't want to believe this is it. he wants to enrich his morality and therefore his essence by transcending such simplicity and pretending as if there is some metaphysical depth to his being. but the truth is, he isn't even shallow. well okay sure, he's shallow... i guess we can give him that much, at least.
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Re: What is Ethics? - a fresh, new approach

Postby thinkdr » Mon Mar 18, 2019 2:19 am

promethean75 wrote:
Are you a noncognitivist? If so, can you give sound reasons to lend credence as to why that is true?


sure, you could call me an amateur noncognitivist,... noncognitivism and its branches - e.g., emotivism and quasi-realism - are as far as ethical theory can go.

one would think this is very dangerous to morality, but in fact it's quite innocuous.... what guides people's behavior is [they] want to avoid pain and displeasure and attain gratification and satisfaction. but ... man is really just a ... pavlonian dog that learns how to behave, and what 'principles' to attribute to such behavior... through operant conditioning.

... ethics and morality had been an attempt . to over-complicate this matter as a result of the embarrassment man has felt .... he wants to enrich his morality.


Yes, embarrasment, along with shame, disgust, guil, compassion, self-discipline, joy, approval, and gratitude are some of the moral emotions. Emotions are to beliefs as a barometer is to the weather. The emotions usually are a readout of the underlying beliefs, our conceptions. If our values are distorted, so will be our priorities - and these guide our life. Cognitions matter. Values matter. When you hear in your mind the sounds of "Ollie's Street," you call it "music"; that is how you value it. Someone else, valuing those sounds differently, would call them "noise."

Since you are a musician, and an original composer, I would respect your views regarding the sounds more than some other people's judgment. You Intrinsically-value those sounds. When you do the same toward yourself as well as others, you are ethical. Yes, as Al Bandura has explained in his latest book, there can be "moral disengagement -enabled by any one of the six mechanisms he lists, or a combination of those.

My approach, in the first linked-essay below, THE STRUCTURE, is to show that the benefits exceed the costs if one will commit oneself to living a moral life, as measured by the comprehension of the Moral Principles offered in the essay.

It's funny you should mention "operant conditioning." I actually knew Fred (B.F.) Skinner, the man who did more work in this area than anyone else. He showed me around his lab at William James Hall on the campus of Harvard University. He gave me permission to reproduce one of his papers in an anthology I published.
It is a fact that if an individual becomes aware that he is being conditioned he can defy the conditioning; he can act autonomously ... much as you do when you spontaneously compose some original jazz, listening to your own beat.

Yes, the STRUCTURE OF ETHICS essay encourages people to, as you say, "enrich their morality." Does it help accomplish this goal? Should it be taught to kids in their own words?

Your review of it would help make progress toward attaining a more-ethical world.

I welcome your comments, Readers. This is a Philosophy Forum. Let's do some. Let's get closer to formalizing the topics, thus getting the knowledge to be more reliable, more scientific. Do you agree with M. Shermer that science makes us better people? {See reference to him in the first link below.}
:idea: For further reading and insight into the topics of Ethics check out these links, and thereby add to your reading enjoyment

THE STRUCTURE OF ETHICS
[NEW] :!:
http://www.myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/TH ... ETHICS.pdf


THE BREAKTHROUGH - We Can Get Along After All (2018) http://myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/BREAKT ... %20all.pdf

LIVING WELL: how ethics helps us flourish
http://www.myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/LI ... ourish.pdf


[b]BASIC ETHICS: a systematic approach
(2014) [size=85]http://tinyurl.com/mfcgzfz


ETHICAL ADVENTURES http://wadeharvey.myqol.com/wadeharvey/PDFs/ETHICAL%20ADVENTURES.pdf

When you Google this selection you may wish tostart with page 20 to skip the technicalities. Marvin C. Katz - ETHICS: A College Course http://wadeharvey.myqol.com/wadeharvey/Ethics_A_College_Course.pdf
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Re: What is Ethics? - a fresh, new approach

Postby promethean75 » Mon Mar 18, 2019 2:36 am

I actually knew Fred (B.F.) Skinner


holy shit... are you serious?
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